Sunday, January 12, 2020

Exemption of Mosquitoes to be free from Malaria - Dr TN Chugh

Exemption of Mosquitoes to be free from Malaria Dr TN Chugh
12 January 2020
Pictures and Videos: GS Mann, Amar Singh Jyani, 

Exemption of Mosquitoes to be free from Malaria
The causative protozoan of malaria was first reported by A. Levaran in 1880. In fact he discovered Plasmodium and received Nobel Prize in 1907. Discovery of female Anopheles mosquito, as transmission agent or vector, was performed by Ronald Ross in 1897, a doctor in Indian army (working in Secundrabad, India) receiving Nobel Prize in 1902. Dr. Grass described life cycle of Plasmodium from the stomach of female Mosquito.
Malaria kills from 4.55 to 7.30 lakhs people every year, being high number in Africa, being about 1700 every year in the United States. It is at good number in South East Asia, Latin America and the Middle East due to high fever, chills and Flu-like symptoms through Plasmodium parasite. Deaths may be in half people ever lived. Many children are ill-affected in Africa.
Mosquito Insect:
Mosquitoes have about 112 genera and over 3500 species. Major vector is Anopheles of Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insect a, Order Diptera, Families being Culicidae (from Latin Culera meaning “GNAT”), Tipulidae and Chironomidae. The word MOSQUITO is formed by’’ Mosca and Diminutive” is Spanish for the little fly.
Mosquitoes have slender segmented body, one pair wings, three pairs of long hair-like legs, one pair of feathery antennae and elongated mouthparts. The life cycle consists of egg, larva, pupa and adult. The eggs are laid in stagnant water and on aquatic plants. Eggs hatch to larvae. Bloodsucking mosquito emerge from the mature pupa as it floats in the water surface. The adult size maybe 3 to 6mm. The largest species may be of 16 mm.  Adult females of many species have tube-like mouthparts. They feed on blood which contains proteins and iron. Thousand of mosquito species feed on the blood of vertebrates including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and some fishes. A few feed on invertebrate Arthropods. The male mosquitoes feed on nectar, aphid honeydews and plant juices. Many flowers are pollinated by mosquitoes.
Vectors of important Diseases through Mosquitoes:
    Viral diseases, such as Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Chickun-gunya (transmitted mostly by Aedes)
2.     Parasitic diseases called Malaria through Plasmodium carried by female mosquitoes Anopheles.
3.     Lymphatic filariasis.         4. West Niles        5. Epimine Encephalitic Virus, Arbor virus.
6.    Tularemia.                          7. Zika.                   8. St. Louis Encephalitis.

Symptoms of Malaria:
1. Fever (after a period of 14 days)   2.  Chilling       3. Shivering and joint pain       4. Headache
5.  Muscular pain and fatigue.    6. Diarrhea             7.  Anemia         8. Convulsion.
9.  Coma.           10.  Blood Stool   And certain complication as
11. Cerebral Malaria (seizures and coma).      12. Breathing problem.     13. Organ failure of liver and kidneys.       14. Low blood sugar.         15. Severe Headache.     16. Vomiting
Infection of Man:
When the mosquito bites the human body, sporozoites present in the salivary gland of Anopheles mosquito are infected in the blood. Sporozoites are spindle or sickle-shaped and uni-nucleate organisms with pellicle, cytoplasm and nucleus. Pre-erythrocytic Schizogony is asexual reproduction to form schizont. These sporozoites enter the liver cells to grow and become rounded schizonts, divide and called crypto-merozoites. Ex- erythrocytic Schizogony occurs due to entry in RBC to start erythrocytic schizogony. However, some may again enter liver cells to become hepatic. Erythrocytic Schizogony may pass through young Trophozoites, signet ring stage, Amoeboid stage, Schizont and merozoites, the incubation period (Plasmodium vivax for 14 days) and development of gametocytes.
Human Species of Plasmodium causing Malaria:
1. Plasmodium vivax: Most common in India and less common in Africa causing benign tertian malaria. Fever after every 48 hours or 3rd day.
2. Plasmodium falciparum: Greatest killer of human beings in Africa and elsewhere in tropics (less common in India). It causes Malignant or Tertian malaria.
3. Plasmodium malaria: Common in Tropical Africa, Burma, Sri-Lanka and part of India. Less common causing Quartanmalaria. Incubation period is 28 days. Recurrence of fever after 72 hours.
4. Plasmodium ovals: Rare of 4-spieces. Mostly found in Tropical Africa. Incubation period is 14 days and it causes Tertian malaria.
Two more rare forms are Quartan malaria and Relapse malaria.
Control of Malaria:
There is a definite anti-malarial department of government as National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP). The control comprises the Treatment of patients, Prevention of infection (Prophylaxis) and Destruction of vector- Anopheles mosquito.
1.      Treatment of Patients: Quinine is the oldest drug extracted from the bark of cinchona tree mostly growing in West-Indies, India, Sri-Lanka, Java and Peru. Other anti-malarial drugs are Paludrine, Primaquin, Chloroquine, Camoquin, Amodiaquine, Trimethoprim, Atobrin, Quinacrine and Comoprima.
2.     Prevention of Infection: a) Prevention from mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets. The exposed body parts be protected through repellent oils, cream etc,
b) Use of antimalarial drugs through preventive medicines such as quinine, paludrine etc.
c) Reduce the susceptibility to infection by maintaining proper health and avoid disease.
3. Destruction of the vector as Anopheles mosquito: The affection gets avoided with the control of vectors.  a) Killing adult mosquitoes: Try to spray proper insecticides as D. D. T., Flit etc. in the habituated areas.
b) Destruction of larvae and pupae of mosquitoes: Try to maintain large water streams in rivers, streams to prevent their increase in number. Try to cover the stagnant water by kerosene oil or crude oil so as to form oil film on the surface. The larvae and pupae get suffocated to death. People may try to spray chemical larvicides, such as DDT, DDD and BHC etc. Release proper ducks, fishes, certain adult insects, and growing insectivore’s plants such as Utricularia to prevent the population of larvae and pupae. Try to eliminate breeding places such as standing water to control larvae and pupae.
c) Elimination of breeding places via window screens.
d) Biological control with parasites such as fungi and nematodes.

Help to the Society:

Every person should be conscious of personal health and take care of society. The qualified persons can better understand the causes, ill effects, treatment and prevention of common diseases. They can also seek the help of the government and the social charitable organization. Everyone should take care of personal diet, daily exercise, time of prayers and meditation. Spare time for selfless voluntary service to society. Develop faith in Divine Lord to lead peaceful life through His kind bliss.

Dr Triloki Nath Chugh Retd. H. E. S. 1. & Retd. Coordinator, Shah Satnam Ji Educational Institutions, SIRSA (Haryana).
Mobile: 094160-48789;     Email:

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